The agreement provided for the handing over of 17,000 hectares of land to Bangladesh in exchange for 7,000 hectares in 162 enclaves in West Bengal, Assam, Tripura and Meghalaya. The AMLA 2015 was signed in Bangladesh on 6 June 2015. [1] The landmark agreement facilitated the transfer of 111 enclaves covering an area of 17,160.63 acres from India to Bangladesh. Conversely, India received 51 enclaves, or 7,110.02 acres, that were in Bangladesh (see Appendices 1 and 2). Prior to this historic agreement, the protocol signed in 2011 between Manmohan Singh of India and Sheikh Hasina of Bangladesh was agreed, Maintaining the status quo in managing the problem of unfavorable land ownership, with India receiving 2,777,038 Acres (see Annex 3) from Bangladesh and passing in exchange 2,267,682 Acres to Bangladesh (see Annex 4). [2] The 2011 Protocol was established in an agreement with the governments of the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and West Bengal, but could not be implemented due to adverse political circumstances. Thus, in 2015, the AMLA implements the unresolved issues posed by the undemarcated land border, approximately 6.1 km long – in three sectors: Daikhata-56 (West Bengal), Muhuri River-Belonia (Tripura) and Lathitila-Dumabari (Assam); the exchange of enclaves; and injurious property first mentioned in the 2011 minutes. [3] It is important to note that Bangladesh gained more territory in exchange for land than India. Prior to the success of the Territorial Exchange Initiative in 2015, many agreements were concluded to facilitate trade.

However, due to adverse political circumstances, no implementation could be implemented (see Annex 6). The first positive initiative was taken in 1982 by a separate settlement where India agreed to lease the Tin Bigha corridor to connect Dahagram and Angarpota from Cooch Behar to Bangladesh during the day. In 2011, the Tin Bigha corridor was transformed from a part-time enclave to a “pene enclave”[8], meaning it remained open all day. However, according to border security force (BSF) duty guards, [9] the doors will remain open until 8:30 p.m.m. The land border agreement was signed on 16 May 1974 between Indira Gandhi and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, who announced the exchange of enclaves and the surrender of harmful goods. [17] Under the agreement, India retained the Berubari Union No. 12 enclave, while Bangladesh retained the Dahagram-Angorpota enclaves with India, which allowed it to access it by giving a 178-meter by 85-metre corridor (584 feet ×,279 feet) called the Tin Bigha Corridor. Bangladesh quickly ratified the agreement in 1974, but India did not. The issue of the undemarcated land boundary of about 6.1 kilometers (3.8 miles) in three sectors – Daikhata-56 in West Bengal, Muhuri River-Belonia in Tripura and Lathitila-Dumabari in Assam – has also not been resolved. The Tin Bigha corridor was leased to Bangladesh in 1992 against local resistance. [3] [54] “The West Bengal government subsidizes rice and wheat for those in the North Bengal enclaves.” The Economic Times, December 23, 2016.

In a pioneering ruling, the Hague-based Permanent Court of Attribution (PCA) on July 7 granted Bangladesh an area of 19,467 km², four-fifths of the total area of 25,602 km² of disputed maritime border in the Bay of Bengal with India. . . .

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