Language learners should strictly follow the rules of the time sequence, especially in formal language and writing and in different oral and written English exams. The declared clause is in the form of a statement (subject- verb), not in question: most of the verbs on the list are used in direct vocal narratives in written texts such as novels and newspaper articles. In normal conversation, we don`t use them in direct language. The reporting clause usually comes in second place, but can sometimes come first: direct and indirect language gives us an excellent opportunity to understand how the rules of the chain of tensions work. For comparison, the examples are given in pairs in the following material: the first sentence in each pair is in direct language, and the second sentence is the same sentence in indirect language. Indirect discourse focuses more on the content of what someone has said than on their specific words. In the indirect language, the structure of the notified clause depends on whether the spokesperson declares an instruction, question or order. Speech reports consist of two parts: the report clause and the report clause. The report clause contains a verb such as saying, saying, asking, answering, shouting, usually simply in the past, and the reported clause contains what the original spokesperson said. The following examples show how different types of direct language sentences are changed to indirect language when the verb is in the main sentence in the past.
Indirect reports on “yes” and “no” issues and questions are or are a declaration clause and a report clause introduced by the introduction or suspension. If it`s more common than it is. The reported clause is in the form of a statement (subject-verb), no questioning: We often change demonstrative (this, this) and adverbs of time and place (now, here, today, etc.) because indirect language occurs at a later date than the original speech, and perhaps in another place. In cases where it is necessary to maintain in the annex clause the expressions mentioning a given time in the past (z.B yesterday, last year, a month ago, in 1995), the simple past generally remains unchanged in the annex clause. This also applies to other object clauses, not just those that were reported in the speech. Indirect reports of orders consist of a report clause and a report clause beginning with a “to-infinitive”: we can use the report verb in the simple indirect language that exists when the original words are still true or relevant at the time of the report, or if the report deals with what someone often says or repeats: we still have difficulty “reconciling tensions in the declared language”? Improve your English with Gymglish – try our free English lessons and receive a free level score! If the verb is used in the main sentence in the past (usually the simple past of the verbs “say, ask, answer”), the verb in the intibility clause of the object in the indirect language should also be used in one of the past times. If direct speech is a question or an exclamation, we use a question mark or an exclamation mark, not a comma: do you know any tips to avoid mistakes with the “tension chord in the reported speech”? Share it with us! Used and should not change in indirect language: direct speech: “You should come, it will be a lot of fun,” she said. Indirect speech: She convinced me to come.
Changes to personal pronouns in indirect reports depend on whether the person reporting the speech and the person who said the original words are identical or different words. In indirect language, telling and telling both are common as reporting verbs. We do not use indirect object with saying, but we always use an indirect object (emphasized) with tell: `backshift` refers to the changes we make to the original verbs in indirect language, because time is spent between the time of speech and the time of the report. We don`t need to change the tension in indirect language if what a person said is still true or relevant or has not