The last annual UN climate change conference, COP25, was held in Madrid, Spain, in December 2019. COP25 is expected to be a springboard for the 2020 climate change conference, at which countries are expected to set new NPPs and funding commitments (however, the COP26 conference, to be held in November 2020, was rescheduled in November 2021 due to the COVID 19 pandemic). Will this agreement last for many decades and protect our climate for our survival? On the one hand, we must wait until at least 2050, as all countries must continue to commit to transforming their economies into low-carbon development and to stimulate their plans to combat climate change every five years, until the total decarbonisation of societies is achieved. This can only be done with indirect collective coercive pressure, which is why the UN climate talks continue. As the graph above shows, other steps have been taken since 1992 during negotiations at events such as the COP (Conference of the Parties). The main agreements on climate change are the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, an international scientific group of nearly 200 member countries, established in 1988 under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). As a result of this forward-looking action, the world adopted its first climate treaty, the Kyoto Protocol, at COP3 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Above all, the treaty calls on the world`s 37 developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Participation is optional for developing countries, including coal-dependent China and India. Trump`s announcement of the Paris climate accord looks a bit like a little bit of a past.

The first time the United States refused to sign an international climate treaty was when President George W. Bush announced his intention to withdraw from the Kyoto Protocol in 2001. It is also good that Article 7 on adaptation to climate change (a case of ongoing concern in developing countries) is one of the longest. But there is nothing concrete in this section, especially not on financial aid. The inclusion of the language of “loss and damage” to address the potentially irreversible costs of climate change in vulnerable developing countries (Article 8) is a step in the right direction. However, the decision on the conference attached to the Paris Agreement specifies that the article “does not imply or compensate” (Article 52). The Paris Agreement confirms the recognition, for the first time within the UNFCCC, that countries have very different capacities to prevent and adapt to the consequences of climate change. In Article 9, the Paris Agreement stipulates that parties to industrialized countries must provide financial resources to the CCC to assist contracting parties in developing countries in both containment and adaptation. In particular, the agreement requires parties in industrialized countries to provide transparent information every two years on how (i.e. subsidies, loans, etc.) and the amounts they currently offer to parts of developing countries (through the EMB) to contribute to their climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies, and on the amounts they plan to allocate in the near future. 23 years after the adoption of the Rio Convention on Climate Change, the failure of the Copenhagen climate change summit in 2009, which should have offered a new agreement for the succession of the Kyoto Protocol, negotiations continued until December of this year, for which a deadline was set. Thus, the 196 countries of the world, with six weeks of formal negotiations during 2015, several international events and more than two weeks of talks in Paris, have finally concluded a new climate agreement for 2020.

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